In vitro fertilization (IVF)

iVF is a procedure in which the sperm and the egg are fertilized in a laboratory dish. It is an assisted reproductive technology in which the sperm and the egg are not united in the human body. Instead some special medical techniques are used to make a woman pregnant. IVF is the option when no other fertility treatment option occurs.

In vitro fertilization (IVF)

How It Works

There are 5 basic steps of IVF. These are as follows

Step 1: Stimulation or super ovulation

  • The egg production is made to boost with the help of fertility drugs.
  • With the help of the fertility drugs, several eggs are produced.
  • Regular check up of a woman is done that includes transvaginal ultrasound and blood tests to check the ovaries and the hormone levels.

Step 2: Retrieving the egg

  • The eggs are removed from the body through a minor surgery
  • It is an outpatient surgery in which a medicine is given to a woman so that she may not feel pain during the surgery. The egg is then retrieved with a small needle inserted through vagina. The needle has a suction device for pulling the eggs. This procedure is done with the both ovaries.
  • Woman feels some cramping after the procedure is done but it is normal and it goes away within a day.
  • In some cases a laparoscopy is done to retrieve the eggs.

Step 3: Insemination and Fertilization

The eggs and sperms are mixed together. This mixing is called the insemination. The sperm enters the egg after the few hours of insemination. These eggs and sperm are stored in a favorable environment.

Step 4: Embryo culture

When an embryo is formed, its growth is checked regularly.

Step 5: Embryo transfer

The last step is the transfer of embryo into the woman’s womb. If the embryo gets implanted to the walls of the uterus, the pregnancy occurs.

Why IVF is Performed?

It is one of the effective treatments of infertility. It is done to make a woman pregnant who is unable to get pregnant for any reason. The biggest benefit of this procedure is that it can make a woman pregnant even if she is of an advanced age. If a woman has blocked or damaged fallopian tubes or is suffering from the disease like pelvic inflammatory disease, she can also go for IVF to get pregnant. Women suffering from endometriosis are unable to become pregnant so this procedure also helps them getting pregnant.

IVF is also performed in the cases when there is an issue of male infertility due to low sperm count or blockage.  It is an effective procedure for unexplained infertility too.


IVF carries some risks and complications but these risks and complications are only a few. If you have any question about the risk and complications after the IVF, you should discuss with your doctor.

Success Rate

IVF has a good success rate. But there is also a risk of miscarriage. But the chances that a woman will give birth to a healthy baby are more.

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